20/11/2018

Prostate Cancer: Meaning, Location, Symptoms and Treatments

Erythroblastosis fetalis of neonates, also erythroblastosis neonatorum or hemolytic anemia of the newborn is caused by the transmission of antibodies to the red blood cell of the fetus through the placenta in intrauterine life. It is caused by incompatibility of the maternal blood group and the fetal blood group, mostly the Rhesus D antigens of the blood. Erythroblastosis fetalis only occurs when the mother is Rh-.

Erythroblastosis Fetalis
Erythroblastosis fetalis occurs as a result of the sensitization of the mothers Rh- blood due to exposure to Rh-D antigens either by blood transfusion or tearing of the placenta during child birth in which case the blood of the Rh+ fetus mixes with that of the Rh negative mother. As a result of the production of anti-bodies, subsequent Rh+ babies will be subjected to erythroblastosis fetalis because the body of the synthesized mother will attack the baby’s red blood cell due to the presence of Rh-D antigens.
The first Rh+ child of a Rh- woman is free of this disease if the mother is yet to be sensitized by any other means.  If the subsequent child is Rh-, the child is also free from this disease. Other fetomaternal incompatibilities that may lead to erythroblastosis fetalis are the Kell, kidd, MNSs, Diego, Cc, Ee, Xg antigen systems, among others. ABO blood group incompatibility doesn’t cause erythroblastosis fetalis.
Diagnosis

The first step of diagnosis is prenatal maternal blood typing and screening. The blood group and Rhesus factor of the woman is determined. She is also screened for anti-RhD and any other anti-bodies that may have developed due to exposure of any of the antigens that may lead to erythroblastosis fetalis. If the mother is found to be Rh+, normal pregnancy procedures are carried on. If the mother is Rh- and has any of the anti-bodies caused by erythroblastosis fetalis causing antigens, then the next step will be to test the blood of the father, if the paternity of the child is certain.
The blood of the father is screened and tested to determine his Rh factor and to determine if he has any of the antigens that may lead to erythroblastosis fetalis. If the father has neither of the antigens, then the child will be 100 percent free of these antigens and will be free of erythroblastosis fetalis. However, if he is Rh+ or has the anti-body causing antigen, the next step will be to measure the maternal anti-Rh antibodies titers
If the titer value is positive but not up to the laboratory specific critical value, then they she comes back to have them measured every 2 to 4 weeks after the 20th week. If the critical value is exceeded, middle cerebral artery (MCA) blood flow is measured to detect high output heart failure indicating high risk of anemia.  Elevated MCA blood flow during gestational age would lead to consideration of umbilical blood sampling and intra uterine blood transfusion. if the father is heterogynous for Rh-D antigen or any of the anti-body causing antigen, the Rh factor of the child is uncertain so the MCA is still carried out and elevated blood flow means high risk of anemia as well.
Treatment:

If the fetus is at risk of anemia, fetal blood transfusions will be carried out by a specialized in a well-equipped hospital every1 to 2 weeks. This is done until about 32-35 weeks when the child would be delivered. Delivery may be required earlier if the MCA blood flow increases severely.
Prevention

When the Rh- woman is pregnant with her first Rh+ baby and she has not been previously sensitized, she is given Rh-D immune globulin at:

All these processes help prevent her from being sensitized against the Rh-D antigen. The Rh-D immune globulin consists of anti Rh-antibodies that neutralize the fetal Rh positive red blood cells in the mother after delivery.
Sensitization can occur earlier during the pregnancy so Rh-D immune globulin is also given at about 28 weeks into the pregnancy. A 2nd dose is also recommended if termination of the pregnancy has not occurred by the 40th week. It should also be given after any occurrence of vaginal bleeding and After amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling

However, by familiarizing yourself with the do’s and don’ts when it comes to sex, you’ll be able to protect yourself as much as possible from contracting an STD. Unfortunately, if you’re having sex, you’re not 100% guaranteed not to catch an infection, even if you’re using dental dams and condoms. So, unless you abstain, you are at some risk, but knowing your sexual partners and your own body will go a long way to keeping you happy and healthy.
Other Ways You Can Contract an STD:
Refraining from genitally penetrative sex is not going to protect you from contracting an STD because STDs can also be transmitted through genital contact, anal sex and oral sex. Even kissing can! Essentially, an STD transmission can occur whenever bodily fluids are being exchanged – so always be wary of this too.
Even though you can’t catch an STD by sitting on the toilet seat after an infected person, there are indirect ways you can catch an STD. For example, if someone with pubic lice uses a towel and someone without pubic lice uses it after them, they are at risk of contracting this parasite themselves. Again, this is low-risk but it’s just something else to be wary of.

How to Prevent STDs:
We’ve already established that abstaining is the only sure-fire way to protect yourself from an STD but if you don’t want to do that, there are a number of safety measures you can put in place to protect yourself.
Firstly, as awkward as it is, when you meet a new partner, you need to have the “safe sex” conversation with them. It’s incredibly cringe worthy but hugely important and it’ll make sure you’re both safe when you’re having sex. And, if neither of you are sure, you should both go for STD testing before you have sex.
Lowered inhibitions are another way you could put yourself at risk of an STD, so try to avoid alcohol and drugs for this reason. These may lower your guard and might see you taking risks that you wouldn’t normally take if you were sober. You might forego the usual sexual protection, which could put you at risk of STDs and a range of other problems too.
Latex dental dams and condoms are must for each sexual act, whether it’s anal, vaginal or oral and you should never use a lubricant that’s oil-based (e.g. petroleum jelly) when you’re using one of these as it can make them ineffective.
It’s not recommended to use condoms that are made from natural membranes either as these aren’t as effective at preventing the contraction of STDs. You should also bear in mind that even though condoms will protect you to some extent, they’re not as effective when it comes to STDs that involve genital sores, e.g. herpes or human papillomavirus (HPV). Other forms of contraception such as intrauterine or oral contraceptives are not a protection against STIs.

If you’re exposed to An STD:
If the worst happens and you think or know you’ve been exposed to an STD, you should seek medical advice straight away. The sooner you can do this, the sooner you can be tested to see if you have been infected by anything. Equally, if you have contracted an STD, you can be given the right medication to help treat the STD.
It’s also important that you don’t jump to any conclusions if you find out that you have an STD, like immediately assuming that your partner has been unfaithful. STDs can often go undetected for quite some time and you may find that a previous partner has infected you or your partner without you knowing.
Discovering you have an STD is traumatic and you may feel angry that someone has put you at risk of contracting an STD, and you may also be ashamed that you could have put others at risk too. However, health care workers can provide you with a lot of support as you come to terms with it, and being open and honest with your partner and previous sexual partners can help to prevent this awful disease from spreading any further.

The prostate is a small gland shaped like a walnut present in men only. It is a gland that envelopes around the urethra of a male as it exits from the bladder just before the rectum. It is a major part of the male reproductive system.
The function of the prostate is that it helps in the making of fluid in the semen which helps in the carriage of sperm from the testicles just as ejaculation occurs. In other words, the prostate produces fluid which serves as a medium of transport in which sperm cells can swim through and be carried from the testicles into the erect penis during ejaculation.
Normally, the prostate gland usually starts out small in size but as a man grows older, it grows larger. This means that as a man grows, the prostate gland grows alongside with him. This is a normal aging process in the life of a man.
Remember we said as the man grows, the prostate gland grows with him but also remember that the prostate gland surrounds the urethra. Once it grows so big, it will begin to push and press against the urethra causing difficulty to pass out urine.

Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in men that can go on without being detected for sometimes a long period of time. Usually, the cancer grows little by little and mostly it stays only within the prostate gland where it doesn’t cause problems hence the reason why it can go undetected for a long time.
The problem begins when the cancer begins to grow out of the prostate gland and when it becomes so aggressive and it moves so rapidly through the cells of the body.
Prostate cancer starts immediately the cells in the prostate begins to divide and enlarges. If a person has for example a single cancerous cell in the prostate gland, the problem begins when due to the fact that the prostate grows as a man grows and for growth to occur, there has to be division of cells hence this cancerous cell as well will grow and divide as well increasing in both size and number.
These cancerous cells usually grow faster and more rapidly than the normal prostate gland cells hence competing and eventually stuffing out the normal cells hereby they kill other normal cells by competing for space and due to the fact that they grow more rapidly than the other normal cells, the normal cells can’t keep up with their growth rate hence they will die off and become replaced with the cancerous cells growing rapidly hereby causing prostate cancer.
When these normal cells die, the abnormal cells will take up their space accumulating and therefore a cancerous tumor. This cancerous tumor can hereby begin to spread to surrounding regions which contain blood, lymph nodes, tissues, bones and also organs.
When these cancerous tumors begin to attack the lymph node, they can travel very far alongside lymph through the lymphatic system. Since lymph nodes are present in almost all parts of the body, once the cancer enters the lymph node, it can basically spread to everywhere in the body.
Prostate Cancer

You may be wondering what then are the symptoms of prostate cancer? Remember we said that if the cancer doesn’t go out of the prostate gland, it doesn’t cause any problems and might not even cause any problems as it is still at the early stages but when it goes into the late stages, and it begins to progress outside the prostate and begins to spread across to other parts of the body, then several symptoms begin to show up and these includes

    Frequent and sometimes painful urination: When the prostate gland becomes enlarged, it will press against the urethra making it difficult and painful to pass urine. And because the prostate is closely associated with the bladder, once it enlarges, it will also press against the bladder causing the frequent expulsion of urine or the frequent feeling to always want to pass out urine.
    Finding it difficult to urinate: Apart from the fact that the prostate helps in the creation of seminal fluids, it also helps and enhances the passage of urine. Once the cancerous cells I.e. the abnormal cells begin to grow, it will hamper this function making it very difficult to pass out urine.

You will simply be feeling so pressed but when you get to the rest room to pass out urine, little or no urine will come out. Or you may even start to pass out urine, then you realize that as you continue the process, it becomes quite an uphill but very painful task to pass out urine.

As a special tribute to World Tuberculosis Day 2016, you as the healthy community should know that you can control and stop TB from spreading. Tuberculosis is an infectious disease which is an airborne disease that caused by the germ called Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Overall, this disease can affect the patient’s lungs but some other cases Tuberculosis or TB also can affect another part of your bodies such as bones, brain and kidneys. The window period of this disease might be within weeks or 2 years later for the symptoms to show up.
Tuberculosis Day
How do you catch Tuberculosis in general?

Tuberculosis is easily infecting people because it is one of the airborne diseases that easy to spread such as H1N1 and Mers-Cov. What makes it so contagious is the germ is released to nearest contact via sneezes and coughs. So the nearest contact will inhale the air that contains the infected droplets and introduce the germ inside of the body.
The easiest contact to get Tuberculosis is among the family members and colleagues because they happen to be in the same place with the infected person. The risk to be infected is high if you are among the person that frequently having contact with the infected person every day. Furthermore, if you have another health issue, it is also the helping factors for you to be more susceptible to be infected. The health concerns are such as:

    Diabetes patient, HIV patient, pregnant woman, or receiving cancer treatment because these people are the one who in the weakest immune condition;
    Poor lifestyle such as smoking, didn’t take a proper diet or a balanced meal, and drinking alcohol;
    The young children and the elder person are also vulnerable because their immunity can be easily compromised;

Can tuberculosis be treated?

The good news is, this terrible and deadly disease is treatable. Once you are diagnosed with Tuberculosis, you have to make sure that you take the medication as prescribed and do not forget to pay attention to your doctor’s advice. 2 weeks after your first medicine intake is the time that you have to pay a high attention to your medication because you need to make the germ got weakened before you can go to work or school like usual.
This germ is a little bit tricky to kill, it has 3 layers of skin and the medication is killing it by destructing the layers one by one. In early medication, you will feel very healthy like a horse again because the first layer of the germ was destructed and the germ was successfully weakened. But, do not stop taking your medication because you still have another 2 layers left to take care off. This is why you have to take the medicine accordingly without missing a single dose to ensure the germ is completely removed from your body or it will be back stronger and attack your body even greater.

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